Springs Materials

The Best Springs Materials
Materials are specified to ensure the highest performance and most reliable spring products

We select the world’s best materials…

Silicon Chrome alloy steel wires have high tensile strength and are suitable for high dynamic applications, such as engine valve springs and fuel injector springs. They have a higher resistance to fatigue and relaxation, especially at elevated temperatures, than carbon steels. Working temperatures are typically up to 200+ degrees C.

The high tensile alloys we choose are typically made from ”superclean” raw rod to ensure minimal impurities and non metallic inclusions and they are also 100% surface tested to give a high quality surface finish ultimately to ensure we supply the highest performance products with the highest fatigue life.


Silicon-Chrome-Vanadium Oil Tempered and Silicon-Chrome-Vanadium + Nickel Oil Tempered

1.5mm to 6mm Wire Diameter

  • Branded Specialist Wires
  • ASTM877B


Silicon-Chrome Oil Tempered

0.5mm to 14mm Wire Diameter

  • EN10270/2 VD SiCr
  • DIN 17225 VDSiCr
  • ASTM A877
  • BS2803 685A55 HD2
  • AS33A


Silicon-Chrome Quenched & Tempered

10.0mm to 19.5mm Wire Diameter

  • EN10089 1.7106 (ground & unground)
  • BS1429 685A55 ND2 & HD2
  • DIN17223/2 67SiCr5
  • AS33A & ASS33B


Chrome-Vanadium Quenched & Tempered

10.0mm to 19.5mm Wire Diameter

  • EN10089 1.8159 (ground & unground)
  • BS 1429 735A50 ND & HD
  • DIN 17225 50CrV4
  • ASTM A231


Carbon Steel wires

Are most commonly used and their tensile strength is derived by a combination of heat treatment and work hardening by wire drawing. Patented cold drawn steels have an operating temperature up to 150 degrees C and are susceptible to corrosion if not operating in a dry atmosphere:

  • Hard drawn wire is generally for static, lower stress applications and is usually the cheapest option.
  • Music wires are cold drawn high carbon steel wires. These have are higher quality wires with a high tensile. They are used in high stress applications but only available in smaller wire sizes.


Hard Drawn Carbon Steels

0.2mm to 15mm Wire Diameter

  • EN10270/1 Grades SH, DM, DH
  • BS5216 Grades HD3, HS3, ND3, M4, M5
  • DIN17223/1 Grades B, C, D, II
  • ASTM Grades A679, A228
  • AS8, AS6/7, AS5, AS5A
  • J271, J178
  • G3502


Stainless Steel wires

These wires are generally used for their corrosion resistance and heat resistance. There are three main types of stainless steel austenitic, martensitic and precipitation hardened:

  • Austenitic stainless steels can only be hardened by cold work during wire drawing. This material is the most commonly used where resistance to corrosion and/or relaxation is required. They are weakly magnetic and in the spring hardened form. Working temperatures up to 300 degrees C.
  • Martensitic stainless steels higher strength is obtained through hardening and tempering. They possess good corrosion resistance but inferior to austenitic stainless. They are strongly magnetic and have poor electrical conductivity. Working temperature up to 300 degrees C.
  • Precipitation hardening stainless steels are age hardened to increase their tensile strength and are higher than austenitic stainless steels. Fatigue resistance is excellent but can be prone to occasional stress cracking. Corrosion resistance is less than austenitic stainless. Working temperatures up to 320 degrees C.


Stainless Steel

0.2mm to 15mm Wire Diameter

  • EN10270/3 Grade X10 CrNi 18-8, X5 CrNiMo 17-12-2, X7 CrNiAl 17-7
  • BS2056 Grades 301 (17/7), 302, …316
  • DIN 17224 1.4310, 17224 1.4401, 17224 1.4568
  • ASTM A313
  • AS35
  • AMS 5688, 5673C, 5678
  • JIS G4314


Copper Alloys

Are resistant to atmospheric corrosion, have high thermal and electrical conductivity and non-magnetic.

  • Brass BS2873 CZ107
  • Phosphor Bronze BS2873 PB102/103
  • Beryllium Copper BS2873 CB101


Nickel Alloys

These are high corrosion and high temperature resistant materials and maximum operating temperatures range from 350 degrees C to in excess of 500 degrees C.

  • Inconel X750, Inconel 600, Nimonic 90, Monel 400
  • BS3075 Grades NA14, NA19, NA13
  • AMS 5699E


Titanium Alloys

They are light and with high tensile strength but are prone to fatigue cracking in high dynamic applications.

  • Titanium Alloy 318, Bet C


Please Note

  • The standards referred to are nearest equivalents and are not necessarily identical.
  • The charts are Un-Controlled Copies and are for Guidance Use Only.
  • Disclaimer: Performance Springs cannot be held responsible for any errors, damages or losses, howsoever they are caused as a result of the use of these charts or any associated information.